How to help – fire first aid

Burning – everything we need to know when it happens to us

Even in everyday life, the chance of being burned is very high. Honestly, the serious burns I’ve heard of are more like a hot plate or an iron. But still, when it happens to you, no matter what, it’s good to know what to do. That’s why I want to post useful tips.

Types of burns – from gaseous (high temperature gas), liquid (hot water), solid (stove), from chemicals (caustic soda, nitric, sulfuric acid), or from radiant energy (electricity, and all kinds of rays.)

Fire First Aid

Depending on the type of warm substance, the time for the burn to penetrate the skin increases. Injuries to the skin can range from minor superficial wounds to deep skin damage. Burns that affect larger parts of the body affect the whole body and disrupt its normal rhythm.

Burns are more severe in children under 10 years of age and adults over 55 years of age. The burns of the parts of the body that have hair, such as the one on the face, are most often caused by hot gases and steam.

There are four local burns

Burn I degree of burn is characterized by redness and swelling of the affected area of ​​skin. These changes usually heal in about a week and leave no scars. They end with peeling of the superficial skin layer.

Grade II burns are characterized not only by redness and swelling but also by differently sized blisters containing clear fluid.

III degree burn is subdivided into III A degree (slowly) and III B degree (more severe).

Fire First Aid

In grade III A, only part of the affected skin is killed. In some places, small areas of skin with undamaged sweat and sebaceous glands and hair roots are preserved. From these areas, the integrity of the skin is restored during healing.

In grade III B, the skin in the affected area is completely killed.

Grade IV burn is the most severe burn. All deep tissues are killed (for example, an entire limb).

These degrees are rare on their own. In some places the combustion can be from II, and in neighboring areas from III degree. Sometimes (especially in the beginning) it is too difficult to determine whether it is a III or IV degree burn.

Severe burns often cause shock to the body. The shock manifests itself in the beginning with the so-called erectile phase – the patients are excited, talk a lot, laugh, their mood is elevated, they are not aware of the severity of their condition. Then comes the so-called torpid phase – severe general condition, drowsiness, vomiting, lack of pain, unconsciousness.

In the third week after the burn, the burned tissue disintegrates and infection often occurs at the site of the lesion. The condition of the burns worsens, the temperature rises to 38-39 ° C.

After the fourth week, the period of healing and recovery begins. Wounds of II and III A degree burns heal. Killed tissues in burns of III B and IV degree are eliminated. The secretion from the burned surfaces decreases, the temperature drops, the appetite returns, the general condition improves.

Sometimes even third and fourth degree burns can heal. In these cases, however, large scars and wrinkles of the skin and subcutaneous tissues often occur, which can cause severe disability.


Rapid action is especially important for severe and light burns. The latter are easily treated because they affect only the upper layer of the skin. Assist as described in the box below.

Deep or extensive burns, and those caused by electricity, require immediate medical attention.

After first aid, allow the wounds from light burns to heal on their own.

First aid for minor burns

Immerse the affected area in cold water for at least 10 minutes as soon as possible. This cools the skin and relieves pain. If you do not have water on hand, use another cold, non-irritating liquid such as milk or iced tea.

If you immediately remove jewelry or clothing that is on or around the place. If they stick to the skin, leave it to a specialist to help remove them, as you can remove the skin with them.

If the burn is not a large open wound, cover the burned area with a sterile, non-stick dressing. If you do not have one, use a clean, dry and absorbent cloth.

Do not damage the integrity of the blisters when receiving them. Allow the body to go through the healing process on its own.

During treatment, you can use Deflamol ointment or another medication to help restore the skin.